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Published in the “Journal of Virology” and available online at:

http://jvi.asm.org/content/early/2014/09/04/JVI.00933-14.abstract

Abstract

Adenovirus type 5 E4orf4 is a multifunctional protein that regulates viral gene expression. The activities of E4orf4 are mainly mediated through binding to protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). E4orf4 recruits target phosphoproteins into complexes with PP2A resulting in dephosphorylation of host factors, such as SR splicing factors. In the current study, we utilized immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry to identify novel E4orf4 interacting proteins. In this manner we identified Nup205, a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) as an E4orf4 interacting partner. The Arginine Rich Motif (ARM) of E4orf4 was required for interaction with Nup205 and for nuclear localization of E4orf4. ARMs are commonly found on viral nuclear proteins and we observed that Nup205 interacts with three different nuclear viral proteins containing ARMs. E4orf4 formed a trimolecular complex containing both Nup205 and PP2A. Furthermore, Nup205 complexed with E4orf4 was hypophosphorylated suggesting the protein is specifically targeted for dephosphorylation. An adenovirus mutant that does not express E4orf4 (Orf4) displayed elevated early and reduced late gene expression relative to wild-type. We observed that knockdown of Nup205 resulted in the same phenotype as the Orf4 virus suggesting that the proteins function as a complex to regulate viral gene expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nup205 resulted in a more than a four-fold reduction in the replication of wild-type adenovirus. Our data show for first time that Ad5 E4orf4 interacts with and modifies the NPC and that Nup205-E4orf4 binding is required for normal regulation of viral gene expression and viral replication.

Importance 

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are highly regulated conduits in the nuclear membrane that control transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Viruses that replicate in the nucleus must negotiate the NPC during nuclear entry, and viral DNA, mRNA, and proteins must then be exported from the nucleus. Several types of viruses restructure the NPC to facilitate replication and the current study shows that adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) utilizes a novel mechanism to modify NPC function. We demonstrate that a subunit of the NPC, Nup205, is a phosphoprotein that is actively dephosphorylated by the Ad5 encoded protein E4orf4. Moreover, Nup205 is required by Ad5 to regulate viral gene expression and efficient viral replication. Nup205 is a non-structural subunit that is responsible for the gating functions of the NPC and this study suggests for the first time that the NPC is regulated by phosphorylation both during normal physiology and viral infection.

 
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